Prerogative in connection with Parliament
1.5The prerogatives of the Crown, in connection with the legislature, are of paramount importance. The legal existence of Parliament results from the exercise of royal prerogative (see para 8.2 ). As ‘supreme governor, as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal’,1 the Queen appoints the archbishops and bishops of the Church of England who, as ‘Lords Spiritual’, form part of the House of Lords. All titles of honour are the gift of the Crown, and thus all ‘Lords Temporal’ in the upper House have been created by royal prerogative, and their number may be increased at pleasure. To a Queen's writ, also, Members of the House of Commons owe their election as the representatives of the people. The prorogation of Parliament is also a prerogative act of the Crown (see para 8.5 ). Other important powers will be described in the appropriate place.
The Crown also has a close relationship with the presiding officer of each House. The Speakers of both Houses, though elected by them, are submitted to the approbation of the Crown (paras 4.48 and 8.20 ).2